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Understanding Exercise and the Menstrual Cycle

Understanding Exercise and the Menstrual Cycle

, by FLOW Admin, 6 min reading time

Understanding and adapting your exercise routine to your menstrual cycle isn't just a way to stay comfortable—it can also enhance your effectiveness and enjoyment of your fitness regimen. Women's bodies go through distinct phases each month, each of which can impact energy levels, strength, and overall physical feeling. Here’s how you can align your workout plan with your menstrual cycle for optimised physical health and comfort.

The Phases of the Menstrual Cycle and Exercise

Phase 1: Menstrual Phase (Day 1-5)

During the first few days of a period, many women experience low energy and discomfort. This is a good time to engage in gentle, low-impact activities:

  • Yoga and Stretching: These can help alleviate cramps and lower back pain.
  • Walking: A gentle walk can boost your mood and keep you active without overexertion. A walking pad can be an excellent way to stay active indoors when the weather outside is unfavorable.
  • Light Cardio: If you feel up to it, light cardio like a slow bike ride can be beneficial.

Phase 2: Follicular Phase (Day 6-14)

Post menstruation, as your body ramps up estrogen production, energy levels typically increase as the body prepares for ovulation. Leverage this time for more intense workouts:

  • Strength Training: Take advantage of increased pain tolerance and muscle recovery during this phase to engage in strength training.
  • High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): With higher energy, HIIT can be more enjoyable and effective.

Phase 3: Ovulatory Phase (Day 15-23)

During ovulation energy levels peak, due to a surge in the hormones estrogen and testosterone, making it the best time for reaching personal bests or engaging in strenuous workouts. However, some women may experience instability in their joints due to hormonal fluctuations, so it’s important to be cautious to avoid injuries.

  • Peak Performance Workouts: It's a good time for challenging yourself with personal bests or high-energy classes.
  • Group Sports: Engaging in social sports can be more enjoyable during this phase due to the high energy.

Phase 4: Luteal Phase (Day 24 to end of cycle)

As your body prepares for the possibility of pregnancy, you might start to feel the effects of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), which can make high-energy workouts feel more challenging. This phase is characterised by a peak and then a drop in progesterone, potentially leading to increased fatigue and emotional variability. It’s a good time to switch to moderate exercises and focus on maintaining consistency rather than intensity.

  • Moderate Cardio: Activities like jogging or cycling at a moderate pace can help reduce premenstrual symptoms.
  • Pilates and Light Strength Training: These can help maintain muscle tone without overly taxing your body.
  • Mindful Movement: Practices like tai chi or gentle yoga can also help soothe mood fluctuations and bloating.

Benefits of Tailored Exercise During the Menstrual Cycle

Optimises Workouts: Adjusting exercise intensity and type to match hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle can make workouts more effective and aligned with the body’s natural energy levels.

Minimises Discomfort and Injury: By syncing exercise types with hormonal changes, women can reduce the risk of discomfort and injuries, choosing gentler workouts when the body is more susceptible to strain.

Enhances Physical Performance: During phases like the follicular period when energy is high and recovery is quicker, women can capitalise on high-intensity workouts to potentially reach peak performance levels.

Improves Symptoms of PMS: Tailoring exercise to more moderate, stabilising activities during the luteal phase can alleviate premenstrual symptoms, helping to maintain emotional and physical balance.

Maintains Consistency and Motivation: Knowing when to push harder and when to ease up based on the menstrual cycle helps maintain a consistent exercise routine without the frustration of working against the body’s natural rhythms.

Sustainable Fitness Habits: By being more in tune with their bodies, women can develop more sustainable and enjoyable fitness habits that continue long term.

Final Thoughts

By paying attention to your menstrual cycle and adjusting your exercise routine accordingly, you can not only improve your physical performance but also ensure a more comfortable and enjoyable fitness journey. Remember, every woman's body is different. It's important to listen to your body and adjust these suggestions based on how you feel during each phase of your cycle.

Embracing a cycle-synced approach to exercise can lead to better overall health outcomes and a deeper connection with your body's natural rhythms. So, consider tracking your cycle and experiment with adjusting your workout intensity and type—it could be the key to unlocking the most effective and satisfying fitness regime for you.


What specific yoga poses or stretching exercises are recommended during the menstrual phase to alleviate cramps and lower back pain?

Poses such as Child's Pose, Cat-Cow, and Forward Fold can be particularly soothing. These poses help to relax the pelvic muscles, ease tension in the back, and promote overall relaxation, which can alleviate menstrual discomfort.

How can women track their menstrual cycle effectively to better plan their workouts?

Tracking one's menstrual cycle to better plan workouts can be done efficiently using various apps designed for cycle tracking, such as Clue or Flo. These apps allow users to log their period dates, symptoms, and even physical activity, which can help in predicting energy levels and physical condition throughout the cycle. Regular use of such apps can provide insightful data that helps in aligning exercise routines more closely with the menstrual phases.

Are there any specific dietary recommendations that should accompany these exercise adjustments to enhance performance and comfort throughout the cycle?

Regarding dietary recommendations to complement exercise throughout the menstrual cycle, it's beneficial to adjust your diet according to the different phases of your cycle. For instance, during the menstrual phase, incorporating foods rich in iron and vitamin B12 can help replenish blood loss and boost energy. Foods high in magnesium and calcium, like leafy greens and dairy products, can be helpful during the luteal phase to combat PMS symptoms. Balancing blood sugar levels with a diet rich in protein and complex carbohydrates can also stabilise mood and energy levels, enhancing both physical performance and comfort.

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